NTPsec

c-ntpsec-72-hour-stats

Report generated: Thu Jul 18 02:13:31 2019 UTC
Start Time: Mon Jul 15 02:13:06 2019 UTC
End Time: Thu Jul 18 02:13:06 2019 UTC
Report published: Wed Jul 17 19:15:16 2019 PDT
Report Period: 3.0 days

Local Clock Time/Frequency Offsets

local offset plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Time Offset -3.032 -1.655 -1.058 0.027 1.041 1.448 3.395 2.099 3.103 0.663 0.009 µs -4.042 10.75
Local Clock Frequency Offset -8.535 -8.529 -8.500 -8.373 -8.287 -8.275 -8.272 0.212 0.254 0.058 -8.373 ppm -3.072e+06 4.465e+08

The time and frequency offsets between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the time offset (blue, in μs, scale on left). Quick changes in time offset will lead to larger frequency offsets.

These are fields 3 (time) and 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Time Jitter

local jitter plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Time Jitter 82.000 123.000 141.000 213.000 455.000 649.000 1,087.000 314.000 526.000 104.189 241.209 ns 8.655 37.53

The RMS Jitter of the local clock offset. In other words, how fast the local clock offset is changing.

Lower is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0μs.

RMS jitter is field 5 in the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Frequency Jitter

local stability plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 16.000 24.000 33.000 88.000 300.000 422.000 719.000 267.000 398.000 86.196 116.419 10e-12 2.91 10.47

The RMS Frequency Jitter (aka wander) of the local clock's frequency. In other words, how fast the local clock changes frequency.

Lower is better. An ideal clock would be a horizontal line at 0ppm.

RMS Frequency Jitter is field 6 in the loopstats log file.



Local Clock Time Offset Histogram

local offset histogram plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Offset -3.032 -1.655 -1.058 0.027 1.041 1.448 3.395 2.099 3.103 0.663 0.009 µs -4.042 10.75

The clock offsets of the local clock as a histogram.

The Local Clock Offset is field 3 from the loopstats log file.



Local Temperatures

local temps plot

Local temperatures. These will be site-specific depending upon what temperature sensors you collect data from. Temperature changes affect the local clock crystal frequency and stability. The math of how temperature changes frequency is complex, and also depends on crystal aging. So there is no easy way to correct for it in software. This is the single most important component of frequency drift.

The Local Temperatures are from field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local Frequency/Temp

local freq temps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -8.535 -8.529 -8.500 -8.373 -8.287 -8.275 -8.272 0.212 0.254 0.058 -8.373 ppm -3.072e+06 4.465e+08
Temp ZONE0 57.458 57.996 58.534 60.148 62.300 62.300 62.838 3.766 4.304 1.034 60.340 °C

The frequency offsets and temperatures. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the temperatures.

These are field 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file, and field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local GPS

local gps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
nSats 5.000 6.000 7.000 10.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 5.000 6.000 1.515 9.599 nSat 167.8 979.5
TDOP 0.490 0.590 0.610 0.800 1.450 1.800 3.030 0.840 1.210 0.277 0.886 19.47 83.3

Local GPS. The Time Dilution of Precision (TDOP) is plotted in blue. The number of visible satellites (nSat) is plotted in red.

TDOP is field 3, and nSats is field 4, from the gpsd log file. The gpsd log file is created by the ntploggps program.

TDOP is a dimensionless error factor. TDOP ranges from 1 to greater than 20. 1 denotes the highest possible confidence level. 2 to 5 is good. Greater than 20 means there will be significant inaccuracy and error.



Server Offsets

peer offsets plot

The offset of all refclocks and servers. This can be useful to see if offset changes are happening in a single clock or all clocks together.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 162.159.200.1

peer offset 162.159.200.1 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 162.159.200.1 -5.028 -4.084 -3.341 -1.955 -0.802 0.727 1.855 2.539 4.811 0.786 -1.969 ms -53.07 224.3

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 164.67.62.194

peer offset 164.67.62.194 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 164.67.62.194 -3.786 -3.132 -2.628 -1.828 -1.381 -1.163 -0.006 1.246 1.969 0.373 -1.884 ms -241.1 1593

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 173.11.101.155

peer offset 173.11.101.155 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 173.11.101.155 -7.998 -6.980 -6.279 -5.390 -4.704 -4.197 -3.887 1.575 2.783 0.507 -5.426 ms -1636 1.957e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.10

peer offset 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -205.497 -88.535 -50.736 16.255 87.776 162.039 309.122 138.512 250.574 44.733 17.205 µs -1.506 8.503

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.11

peer offset 192.168.1.11 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.11 -271.437 -94.330 -67.463 -6.760 78.652 128.011 295.490 146.115 222.341 44.988 0.292 µs -3.559 11.18

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 204.123.2.5

peer offset 204.123.2.5 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 204.123.2.5 -2.077 -1.921 -1.699 -1.241 -0.866 -0.713 -0.588 0.833 1.207 0.259 -1.265 ms -221.8 1417

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(0)

peer offset SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(0) -87.412 -72.562 -69.702 -59.360 -49.825 -46.533 -42.062 19.877 26.029 6.079 -59.445 ms -1285 1.42e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(1)

peer offset SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(1) -3.033 -1.656 -1.059 0.028 1.042 1.449 3.396 2.101 3.105 0.663 0.009 µs -4.041 10.74

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitters

peer jitters plot

The RMS Jitter of all refclocks and servers. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 162.159.200.1

peer jitter 162.159.200.1 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 162.159.200.1 0.201 0.424 0.566 1.296 6.922 12.098 118.902 6.356 11.674 5.594 2.469 ms 11.8 214.7

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 164.67.62.194

peer jitter 164.67.62.194 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 164.67.62.194 0.191 0.305 0.506 1.305 9.394 18.865 22.234 8.889 18.560 3.209 2.523 ms 2.542 13.07

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 173.11.101.155

peer jitter 173.11.101.155 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 173.11.101.155 0.360 0.561 0.829 2.023 6.489 10.285 57.141 5.660 9.724 3.109 2.759 ms 10.49 170.1

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.10

peer jitter 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.004 0.031 0.075 0.538 6.235 56.658 80.329 6.160 56.627 6.350 1.839 ms 5.958 58.86

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.11

peer jitter 192.168.1.11 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.11 0.004 0.032 0.073 0.528 6.147 14.803 57.195 6.074 14.771 5.087 1.664 ms 6.836 75.7

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 204.123.2.5

peer jitter 204.123.2.5 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 204.123.2.5 0.169 0.298 0.419 1.309 7.365 24.807 57.617 6.946 24.510 5.869 2.675 ms 5.655 52.14

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(0)

peer jitter SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(0) 0.119 0.413 0.581 1.408 3.925 6.662 21.977 3.344 6.249 1.219 1.754 ms 3.805 18.01

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(1)

peer jitter SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(1) 0.037 0.082 0.121 0.304 0.748 1.067 3.052 0.627 0.985 0.214 0.357 µs 4.221 19.82

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Summary


Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -8.535 -8.529 -8.500 -8.373 -8.287 -8.275 -8.272 0.212 0.254 0.058 -8.373 ppm -3.072e+06 4.465e+08
Local Clock Time Offset -3.032 -1.655 -1.058 0.027 1.041 1.448 3.395 2.099 3.103 0.663 0.009 µs -4.042 10.75
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 16.000 24.000 33.000 88.000 300.000 422.000 719.000 267.000 398.000 86.196 116.419 10e-12 2.91 10.47
Local RMS Time Jitter 82.000 123.000 141.000 213.000 455.000 649.000 1,087.000 314.000 526.000 104.189 241.209 ns 8.655 37.53
Server Jitter 162.159.200.1 0.201 0.424 0.566 1.296 6.922 12.098 118.902 6.356 11.674 5.594 2.469 ms 11.8 214.7
Server Jitter 164.67.62.194 0.191 0.305 0.506 1.305 9.394 18.865 22.234 8.889 18.560 3.209 2.523 ms 2.542 13.07
Server Jitter 173.11.101.155 0.360 0.561 0.829 2.023 6.489 10.285 57.141 5.660 9.724 3.109 2.759 ms 10.49 170.1
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.004 0.031 0.075 0.538 6.235 56.658 80.329 6.160 56.627 6.350 1.839 ms 5.958 58.86
Server Jitter 192.168.1.11 0.004 0.032 0.073 0.528 6.147 14.803 57.195 6.074 14.771 5.087 1.664 ms 6.836 75.7
Server Jitter 204.123.2.5 0.169 0.298 0.419 1.309 7.365 24.807 57.617 6.946 24.510 5.869 2.675 ms 5.655 52.14
Server Jitter SHM(0) 0.119 0.413 0.581 1.408 3.925 6.662 21.977 3.344 6.249 1.219 1.754 ms 3.805 18.01
Server Jitter SHM(1) 0.037 0.082 0.121 0.304 0.748 1.067 3.052 0.627 0.985 0.214 0.357 µs 4.221 19.82
Server Offset 162.159.200.1 -5.028 -4.084 -3.341 -1.955 -0.802 0.727 1.855 2.539 4.811 0.786 -1.969 ms -53.07 224.3
Server Offset 164.67.62.194 -3.786 -3.132 -2.628 -1.828 -1.381 -1.163 -0.006 1.246 1.969 0.373 -1.884 ms -241.1 1593
Server Offset 173.11.101.155 -7.998 -6.980 -6.279 -5.390 -4.704 -4.197 -3.887 1.575 2.783 0.507 -5.426 ms -1636 1.957e+04
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -205.497 -88.535 -50.736 16.255 87.776 162.039 309.122 138.512 250.574 44.733 17.205 µs -1.506 8.503
Server Offset 192.168.1.11 -271.437 -94.330 -67.463 -6.760 78.652 128.011 295.490 146.115 222.341 44.988 0.292 µs -3.559 11.18
Server Offset 204.123.2.5 -2.077 -1.921 -1.699 -1.241 -0.866 -0.713 -0.588 0.833 1.207 0.259 -1.265 ms -221.8 1417
Server Offset SHM(0) -87.412 -72.562 -69.702 -59.360 -49.825 -46.533 -42.062 19.877 26.029 6.079 -59.445 ms -1285 1.42e+04
Server Offset SHM(1) -3.033 -1.656 -1.059 0.028 1.042 1.449 3.396 2.101 3.105 0.663 0.009 µs -4.041 10.74
TDOP 0.490 0.590 0.610 0.800 1.450 1.800 3.030 0.840 1.210 0.277 0.886 19.47 83.3
Temp ZONE0 57.458 57.996 58.534 60.148 62.300 62.300 62.838 3.766 4.304 1.034 60.340 °C
nSats 5.000 6.000 7.000 10.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 5.000 6.000 1.515 9.599 nSat 167.8 979.5
Summary as CSV file


Glossary:

frequency offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated frequency and the local system clock frequency (usually in parts per million, ppm)
jitter, dispersion:
The short term change in a value. NTP measures Local Time Jitter, Refclock Jitter, and Server Jitter in seconds. Local Frequency Jitter is in ppm or ppb.
kurtosis, Kurt:
The kurtosis of a random variable X is the fourth standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of kurtosis. A normal distribution has a kurtosis of three. NIST describes a kurtosis over three as "heavy tailed" and one under three as "light tailed".
ms, millisecond:
One thousandth of a second = 0.001 seconds, 1e-3 seconds
mu, mean:
The arithmetic mean: the sum of all the values divided by the number of values. The formula for mu is: "mu = (∑xi) / N". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
ns, nanosecond:
One billionth of a second, also one thousandth of a microsecond, 0.000000001 seconds and 1e-9 seconds.
percentile:
The value below which a given percentage of values fall.
ppb, parts per billion:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppb, one in one billion, 1/1,000,000,000, 0.000,000,001, 1e-9 and 0.000,000,1%
ppm, parts per million:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppm, one in one million, 1/1,000,000, 0.000,001, and 0.000,1%
‰, parts per thousand:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ‰. one in one thousand, 1/1,000, 0.001, and 0.1%
refclock:
Reference clock, a local GPS module or other local source of time.
remote clock:
Any clock reached over the network, LAN or WAN. Also called a peer or server.
time offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock's time. Also called phase offset.
σ, sigma:
Sigma denotes the standard deviation (SD) and is centered on the arithmetic mean of the data set. The SD is simply the square root of the variance of the data set. Two sigma is simply twice the standard deviation. Three sigma is three times sigma. Smaller is better.
The formula for sigma is: "σ = √[ ∑(xi-mu)^2 / N ]". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
skewness, Skew:
The skewness of a random variable X is the third standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of skewness. Wikipedia describes it best: "The qualitative interpretation of the skew is complicated and unintuitive."
A normal distribution has a skewness of zero.
upstream clock:
Any server or reference clock used as a source of time.
µs, us, microsecond:
One millionth of a second, also one thousandth of a millisecond, 0.000,001 seconds, and 1e-6 seconds.



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