NTPsec

C-ntpsec-3-hour-stats

Report generated: Thu Jul 18 03:03:19 2019 UTC
Start Time: Thu Jul 18 00:03:18 2019 UTC
End Time: Thu Jul 18 03:03:18 2019 UTC
Report published: Wed Jul 17 20:03:59 2019 PDT
Report Period: 0.1 days

Local Clock Time/Frequency Offsets

local offset plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Time Offset -0.841 -0.367 -0.052 0.514 1.218 1.481 1.702 1.270 1.848 0.380 0.525 µs 1.414 4.795
Local Clock Frequency Offset -8.402 -8.402 -8.401 -8.388 -8.377 -8.376 -8.376 0.024 0.026 0.0078 -8.388 ppm -1.246e+09 1.341e+12

The time and frequency offsets between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the time offset (blue, in μs, scale on left). Quick changes in time offset will lead to larger frequency offsets.

These are fields 3 (time) and 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Time Jitter

local jitter plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Time Jitter 100.000 111.000 149.000 211.000 405.000 556.000 639.000 256.000 445.000 79.164 227.629 ns 14.49 59.84

The RMS Jitter of the local clock offset. In other words, how fast the local clock offset is changing.

Lower is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0μs.

RMS jitter is field 5 in the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Frequency Jitter

local stability plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 37.000 38.000 49.000 77.000 149.000 175.000 190.000 100.000 137.000 30.841 85.391 10e-12 11.84 39.16

The RMS Frequency Jitter (aka wander) of the local clock's frequency. In other words, how fast the local clock changes frequency.

Lower is better. An ideal clock would be a horizontal line at 0ppm.

RMS Frequency Jitter is field 6 in the loopstats log file.



Local Clock Time Offset Histogram

local offset histogram plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Offset -0.841 -0.367 -0.052 0.514 1.218 1.481 1.702 1.270 1.848 0.380 0.525 µs 1.414 4.795

The clock offsets of the local clock as a histogram.

The Local Clock Offset is field 3 from the loopstats log file.



Local Temperatures

local temps plot

Local temperatures. These will be site-specific depending upon what temperature sensors you collect data from. Temperature changes affect the local clock crystal frequency and stability. The math of how temperature changes frequency is complex, and also depends on crystal aging. So there is no easy way to correct for it in software. This is the single most important component of frequency drift.

The Local Temperatures are from field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local Frequency/Temp

local freq temps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -8.402 -8.402 -8.401 -8.388 -8.377 -8.376 -8.376 0.024 0.026 0.0078 -8.388 ppm -1.246e+09 1.341e+12
Temp ZONE0 59.072 59.072 59.072 59.610 60.148 60.148 60.148 1.076 1.076 0.398 59.580 °C

The frequency offsets and temperatures. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the temperatures.

These are field 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file, and field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local GPS

local gps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
nSats 7.000 8.000 9.000 10.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 3.000 4.000 1.023 10.062 nSat 716.4 6575
TDOP 0.490 0.490 0.580 0.710 1.170 1.210 1.520 0.590 0.720 0.196 0.803 39.58 160.6

Local GPS. The Time Dilution of Precision (TDOP) is plotted in blue. The number of visible satellites (nSat) is plotted in red.

TDOP is field 3, and nSats is field 4, from the gpsd log file. The gpsd log file is created by the ntploggps program.

TDOP is a dimensionless error factor. TDOP ranges from 1 to greater than 20. 1 denotes the highest possible confidence level. 2 to 5 is good. Greater than 20 means there will be significant inaccuracy and error.



Server Offsets

peer offsets plot

The offset of all refclocks and servers. This can be useful to see if offset changes are happening in a single clock or all clocks together.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 162.159.200.1

peer offset 162.159.200.1 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 162.159.200.1 -4.087 -4.087 -3.987 -3.414 -2.916 -2.748 -2.748 1.072 1.339 0.319 -3.403 ms -1623 1.935e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 164.67.62.194

peer offset 164.67.62.194 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 164.67.62.194 -2.146 -2.146 -2.145 -1.880 -1.347 -1.261 -1.261 0.798 0.885 0.228 -1.813 ms -740 6842

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 173.11.101.155

peer offset 173.11.101.155 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 173.11.101.155 -6.533 -6.533 -6.125 -5.266 -4.744 -3.887 -3.887 1.382 2.646 0.488 -5.355 ms -1750 2.138e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.10

peer offset 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -62.901 -62.901 -49.441 14.170 64.501 94.318 94.318 113.942 157.219 28.742 9.744 µs -2.462 7.325

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.11

peer offset 192.168.1.11 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.11 -81.937 -81.937 -47.515 25.598 96.732 123.225 123.225 144.247 205.162 42.487 26.114 µs -1.147 3.416

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 204.123.2.5

peer offset 204.123.2.5 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 204.123.2.5 -1.699 -1.699 -1.699 -1.214 -0.921 -0.921 -0.921 0.778 0.778 0.221 -1.273 ms -329 2373

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(0)

peer offset SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(0) -78.065 -70.942 -68.467 -60.558 -53.027 -51.624 -48.846 15.440 19.318 4.511 -60.552 ms -3044 4.454e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(1)

peer offset SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(1) -0.842 -0.368 -0.053 0.515 1.219 1.482 1.703 1.272 1.850 0.380 0.526 µs 1.415 4.799

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitters

peer jitters plot

The RMS Jitter of all refclocks and servers. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 162.159.200.1

peer jitter 162.159.200.1 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 162.159.200.1 0.487 0.487 0.510 1.065 2.112 2.137 2.137 1.601 1.650 0.470 1.169 ms 8.294 23.5

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 164.67.62.194

peer jitter 164.67.62.194 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 164.67.62.194 0.484 0.484 0.554 1.229 5.293 9.152 9.152 4.739 8.667 1.715 1.718 ms 2.798 10.96

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 173.11.101.155

peer jitter 173.11.101.155 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 173.11.101.155 0.534 0.534 0.658 2.083 5.512 6.398 6.398 4.854 5.863 1.378 2.259 ms 3.629 11.08

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.10

peer jitter 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.030 0.030 0.092 0.535 7.452 10.204 10.204 7.359 10.174 1.820 1.073 ms 2.04 9.53

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.11

peer jitter 192.168.1.11 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.11 0.071 0.071 0.100 0.797 4.673 5.787 5.787 4.573 5.717 1.502 1.410 ms 1.189 3.708

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 204.123.2.5

peer jitter 204.123.2.5 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 204.123.2.5 0.321 0.321 0.321 1.486 5.730 5.730 5.730 5.409 5.409 1.224 1.515 ms 2.896 10.47

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(0)

peer jitter SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(0) 0.229 0.410 0.595 1.398 3.741 6.429 14.181 3.146 6.019 1.182 1.724 ms 3.99 19.43

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(1)

peer jitter SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(1) 60.000 92.000 129.000 311.000 762.000 961.000 1,215.000 633.000 869.000 205.239 366.792 ns 3.789 10.47

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Summary


Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -8.402 -8.402 -8.401 -8.388 -8.377 -8.376 -8.376 0.024 0.026 0.0078 -8.388 ppm -1.246e+09 1.341e+12
Local Clock Time Offset -0.841 -0.367 -0.052 0.514 1.218 1.481 1.702 1.270 1.848 0.380 0.525 µs 1.414 4.795
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 37.000 38.000 49.000 77.000 149.000 175.000 190.000 100.000 137.000 30.841 85.391 10e-12 11.84 39.16
Local RMS Time Jitter 100.000 111.000 149.000 211.000 405.000 556.000 639.000 256.000 445.000 79.164 227.629 ns 14.49 59.84
Server Jitter 162.159.200.1 0.487 0.487 0.510 1.065 2.112 2.137 2.137 1.601 1.650 0.470 1.169 ms 8.294 23.5
Server Jitter 164.67.62.194 0.484 0.484 0.554 1.229 5.293 9.152 9.152 4.739 8.667 1.715 1.718 ms 2.798 10.96
Server Jitter 173.11.101.155 0.534 0.534 0.658 2.083 5.512 6.398 6.398 4.854 5.863 1.378 2.259 ms 3.629 11.08
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.030 0.030 0.092 0.535 7.452 10.204 10.204 7.359 10.174 1.820 1.073 ms 2.04 9.53
Server Jitter 192.168.1.11 0.071 0.071 0.100 0.797 4.673 5.787 5.787 4.573 5.717 1.502 1.410 ms 1.189 3.708
Server Jitter 204.123.2.5 0.321 0.321 0.321 1.486 5.730 5.730 5.730 5.409 5.409 1.224 1.515 ms 2.896 10.47
Server Jitter SHM(0) 0.229 0.410 0.595 1.398 3.741 6.429 14.181 3.146 6.019 1.182 1.724 ms 3.99 19.43
Server Jitter SHM(1) 60.000 92.000 129.000 311.000 762.000 961.000 1,215.000 633.000 869.000 205.239 366.792 ns 3.789 10.47
Server Offset 162.159.200.1 -4.087 -4.087 -3.987 -3.414 -2.916 -2.748 -2.748 1.072 1.339 0.319 -3.403 ms -1623 1.935e+04
Server Offset 164.67.62.194 -2.146 -2.146 -2.145 -1.880 -1.347 -1.261 -1.261 0.798 0.885 0.228 -1.813 ms -740 6842
Server Offset 173.11.101.155 -6.533 -6.533 -6.125 -5.266 -4.744 -3.887 -3.887 1.382 2.646 0.488 -5.355 ms -1750 2.138e+04
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -62.901 -62.901 -49.441 14.170 64.501 94.318 94.318 113.942 157.219 28.742 9.744 µs -2.462 7.325
Server Offset 192.168.1.11 -81.937 -81.937 -47.515 25.598 96.732 123.225 123.225 144.247 205.162 42.487 26.114 µs -1.147 3.416
Server Offset 204.123.2.5 -1.699 -1.699 -1.699 -1.214 -0.921 -0.921 -0.921 0.778 0.778 0.221 -1.273 ms -329 2373
Server Offset SHM(0) -78.065 -70.942 -68.467 -60.558 -53.027 -51.624 -48.846 15.440 19.318 4.511 -60.552 ms -3044 4.454e+04
Server Offset SHM(1) -0.842 -0.368 -0.053 0.515 1.219 1.482 1.703 1.272 1.850 0.380 0.526 µs 1.415 4.799
TDOP 0.490 0.490 0.580 0.710 1.170 1.210 1.520 0.590 0.720 0.196 0.803 39.58 160.6
Temp ZONE0 59.072 59.072 59.072 59.610 60.148 60.148 60.148 1.076 1.076 0.398 59.580 °C
nSats 7.000 8.000 9.000 10.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 3.000 4.000 1.023 10.062 nSat 716.4 6575
Summary as CSV file


Glossary:

frequency offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated frequency and the local system clock frequency (usually in parts per million, ppm)
jitter, dispersion:
The short term change in a value. NTP measures Local Time Jitter, Refclock Jitter, and Server Jitter in seconds. Local Frequency Jitter is in ppm or ppb.
kurtosis, Kurt:
The kurtosis of a random variable X is the fourth standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of kurtosis. A normal distribution has a kurtosis of three. NIST describes a kurtosis over three as "heavy tailed" and one under three as "light tailed".
ms, millisecond:
One thousandth of a second = 0.001 seconds, 1e-3 seconds
mu, mean:
The arithmetic mean: the sum of all the values divided by the number of values. The formula for mu is: "mu = (∑xi) / N". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
ns, nanosecond:
One billionth of a second, also one thousandth of a microsecond, 0.000000001 seconds and 1e-9 seconds.
percentile:
The value below which a given percentage of values fall.
ppb, parts per billion:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppb, one in one billion, 1/1,000,000,000, 0.000,000,001, 1e-9 and 0.000,000,1%
ppm, parts per million:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppm, one in one million, 1/1,000,000, 0.000,001, and 0.000,1%
‰, parts per thousand:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ‰. one in one thousand, 1/1,000, 0.001, and 0.1%
refclock:
Reference clock, a local GPS module or other local source of time.
remote clock:
Any clock reached over the network, LAN or WAN. Also called a peer or server.
time offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock's time. Also called phase offset.
σ, sigma:
Sigma denotes the standard deviation (SD) and is centered on the arithmetic mean of the data set. The SD is simply the square root of the variance of the data set. Two sigma is simply twice the standard deviation. Three sigma is three times sigma. Smaller is better.
The formula for sigma is: "σ = √[ ∑(xi-mu)^2 / N ]". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
skewness, Skew:
The skewness of a random variable X is the third standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of skewness. Wikipedia describes it best: "The qualitative interpretation of the skew is complicated and unintuitive."
A normal distribution has a skewness of zero.
upstream clock:
Any server or reference clock used as a source of time.
µs, us, microsecond:
One millionth of a second, also one thousandth of a millisecond, 0.000,001 seconds, and 1e-6 seconds.



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