NTPsec

B-ntpsec-24-hour-stats

Report generated: Thu Jul 18 02:07:34 2019 UTC
Start Time: Wed Jul 17 02:07:27 2019 UTC
End Time: Thu Jul 18 02:07:27 2019 UTC
Report published: Wed Jul 17 19:08:10 2019 PDT
Report Period: 1.0 days

Local Clock Time/Frequency Offsets

local offset plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Time Offset -0.886 -0.576 -0.411 0.080 0.886 1.462 4.194 1.297 2.038 0.416 0.130 µs -0.4691 10.49
Local Clock Frequency Offset -6.191 -6.186 -6.058 -5.823 -5.784 -5.782 -5.782 0.273 0.403 0.085 -5.849 ppm -3.44e+05 2.411e+07

The time and frequency offsets between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the time offset (blue, in μs, scale on left). Quick changes in time offset will lead to larger frequency offsets.

These are fields 3 (time) and 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Time Jitter

local jitter plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Time Jitter 109.000 125.000 150.000 225.000 344.000 410.000 638.000 194.000 285.000 61.682 234.055 ns 31.15 123.4

The RMS Jitter of the local clock offset. In other words, how fast the local clock offset is changing.

Lower is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0μs.

RMS jitter is field 5 in the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Frequency Jitter

local stability plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 25.000 32.000 37.000 63.000 454.000 868.000 1,768.000 417.000 836.000 173.293 113.769 10e-12 3.532 24.01

The RMS Frequency Jitter (aka wander) of the local clock's frequency. In other words, how fast the local clock changes frequency.

Lower is better. An ideal clock would be a horizontal line at 0ppm.

RMS Frequency Jitter is field 6 in the loopstats log file.



Local Clock Time Offset Histogram

local offset histogram plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Offset -0.886 -0.576 -0.411 0.080 0.886 1.462 4.194 1.297 2.038 0.416 0.130 µs -0.4691 10.49

The clock offsets of the local clock as a histogram.

The Local Clock Offset is field 3 from the loopstats log file.



Local Temperatures

local temps plot

Local temperatures. These will be site-specific depending upon what temperature sensors you collect data from. Temperature changes affect the local clock crystal frequency and stability. The math of how temperature changes frequency is complex, and also depends on crystal aging. So there is no easy way to correct for it in software. This is the single most important component of frequency drift.

The Local Temperatures are from field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local Frequency/Temp

local freq temps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -6.191 -6.186 -6.058 -5.823 -5.784 -5.782 -5.782 0.273 0.403 0.085 -5.849 ppm -3.44e+05 2.411e+07
Temp ZONE0 56.382 56.920 56.920 58.534 60.686 62.300 62.838 3.766 5.380 1.203 58.542 °C

The frequency offsets and temperatures. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the temperatures.

These are field 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file, and field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local GPS

local gps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
nSats 6.000 6.000 6.000 9.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 6.000 6.000 1.603 9.233 nSat 121.8 647
TDOP 0.540 0.550 0.600 0.870 1.530 2.160 2.920 0.930 1.610 0.318 0.941 15.46 64.24

Local GPS. The Time Dilution of Precision (TDOP) is plotted in blue. The number of visible satellites (nSat) is plotted in red.

TDOP is field 3, and nSats is field 4, from the gpsd log file. The gpsd log file is created by the ntploggps program.

TDOP is a dimensionless error factor. TDOP ranges from 1 to greater than 20. 1 denotes the highest possible confidence level. 2 to 5 is good. Greater than 20 means there will be significant inaccuracy and error.



Server Offsets

peer offsets plot

The offset of all refclocks and servers. This can be useful to see if offset changes are happening in a single clock or all clocks together.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 162.213.2.253

peer offset 162.213.2.253 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 162.213.2.253 -2.206 -2.191 -2.078 -1.573 -1.089 -0.697 -0.690 0.989 1.494 0.313 -1.569 ms -235.6 1523

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 169.229.128.134

peer offset 169.229.128.134 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 169.229.128.134 -2.680 -2.614 -2.470 -1.976 -1.500 -1.347 -1.232 0.970 1.267 0.287 -1.998 ms -527.5 4388

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.10

peer offset 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -174.844 -38.538 -3.120 28.863 104.458 148.242 235.200 107.578 186.780 33.661 35.103 µs 1.12 8.901

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.12

peer offset 192.168.1.12 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.12 -425.364 -7.262 45.277 131.797 200.455 245.950 377.729 155.178 253.212 50.161 127.860 µs 7.165 28.21

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 216.218.192.202

peer offset 216.218.192.202 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 216.218.192.202 -2.757 -2.644 -2.409 -1.891 -1.412 -1.284 -1.159 0.998 1.361 0.294 -1.907 ms -440.9 3473

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 76.14.161.109

peer offset 76.14.161.109 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 76.14.161.109 -7.375 -6.909 -6.484 -5.228 -3.905 -2.605 -1.877 2.579 4.305 0.810 -5.207 ms -431.8 3366

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(0)

peer offset SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(0) -474.453 -432.543 -417.085 -369.263 -318.266 -301.853 -261.347 98.819 130.690 30.029 -369.555 ms -2396 3.241e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(1)

peer offset SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(1) -0.887 -0.577 -0.412 0.081 0.887 1.463 4.195 1.299 2.040 0.417 0.130 µs -0.4766 10.45

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitters

peer jitters plot

The RMS Jitter of all refclocks and servers. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 162.213.2.253

peer jitter 162.213.2.253 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 162.213.2.253 0.453 0.461 0.588 1.452 5.812 20.569 20.745 5.224 20.107 2.975 2.478 ms 3.543 20.4

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 169.229.128.134

peer jitter 169.229.128.134 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 169.229.128.134 0.292 0.370 0.503 1.467 8.722 22.306 22.417 8.219 21.936 3.402 2.719 ms 2.777 15

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.10

peer jitter 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.010 0.031 0.072 0.534 5.100 56.499 56.939 5.028 56.468 6.233 1.793 ms 5.431 49.11

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.12

peer jitter 192.168.1.12 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.12 0.018 0.037 0.062 0.577 7.266 56.919 80.399 7.203 56.883 9.849 2.831 ms 3.275 23.37

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 216.218.192.202

peer jitter 216.218.192.202 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 216.218.192.202 0.278 0.433 0.551 1.503 8.722 56.647 56.989 8.171 56.214 6.190 3.054 ms 5.694 49.59

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 76.14.161.109

peer jitter 76.14.161.109 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 76.14.161.109 0.474 0.715 1.199 4.758 34.638 55.547 84.302 33.439 54.831 12.966 10.519 ms 1.773 8.503

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(0)

peer jitter SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(0) 1.966 4.518 6.158 11.607 23.131 30.712 61.175 16.973 26.194 5.456 12.761 ms 7.856 28.37

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(1)

peer jitter SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(1) 36.000 85.000 113.000 219.000 459.000 667.000 1,836.000 346.000 582.000 129.822 247.103 ns 6.95 48.97

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Summary


Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -6.191 -6.186 -6.058 -5.823 -5.784 -5.782 -5.782 0.273 0.403 0.085 -5.849 ppm -3.44e+05 2.411e+07
Local Clock Time Offset -0.886 -0.576 -0.411 0.080 0.886 1.462 4.194 1.297 2.038 0.416 0.130 µs -0.4691 10.49
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 25.000 32.000 37.000 63.000 454.000 868.000 1,768.000 417.000 836.000 173.293 113.769 10e-12 3.532 24.01
Local RMS Time Jitter 109.000 125.000 150.000 225.000 344.000 410.000 638.000 194.000 285.000 61.682 234.055 ns 31.15 123.4
Server Jitter 162.213.2.253 0.453 0.461 0.588 1.452 5.812 20.569 20.745 5.224 20.107 2.975 2.478 ms 3.543 20.4
Server Jitter 169.229.128.134 0.292 0.370 0.503 1.467 8.722 22.306 22.417 8.219 21.936 3.402 2.719 ms 2.777 15
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.010 0.031 0.072 0.534 5.100 56.499 56.939 5.028 56.468 6.233 1.793 ms 5.431 49.11
Server Jitter 192.168.1.12 0.018 0.037 0.062 0.577 7.266 56.919 80.399 7.203 56.883 9.849 2.831 ms 3.275 23.37
Server Jitter 216.218.192.202 0.278 0.433 0.551 1.503 8.722 56.647 56.989 8.171 56.214 6.190 3.054 ms 5.694 49.59
Server Jitter 76.14.161.109 0.474 0.715 1.199 4.758 34.638 55.547 84.302 33.439 54.831 12.966 10.519 ms 1.773 8.503
Server Jitter SHM(0) 1.966 4.518 6.158 11.607 23.131 30.712 61.175 16.973 26.194 5.456 12.761 ms 7.856 28.37
Server Jitter SHM(1) 36.000 85.000 113.000 219.000 459.000 667.000 1,836.000 346.000 582.000 129.822 247.103 ns 6.95 48.97
Server Offset 162.213.2.253 -2.206 -2.191 -2.078 -1.573 -1.089 -0.697 -0.690 0.989 1.494 0.313 -1.569 ms -235.6 1523
Server Offset 169.229.128.134 -2.680 -2.614 -2.470 -1.976 -1.500 -1.347 -1.232 0.970 1.267 0.287 -1.998 ms -527.5 4388
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -174.844 -38.538 -3.120 28.863 104.458 148.242 235.200 107.578 186.780 33.661 35.103 µs 1.12 8.901
Server Offset 192.168.1.12 -425.364 -7.262 45.277 131.797 200.455 245.950 377.729 155.178 253.212 50.161 127.860 µs 7.165 28.21
Server Offset 216.218.192.202 -2.757 -2.644 -2.409 -1.891 -1.412 -1.284 -1.159 0.998 1.361 0.294 -1.907 ms -440.9 3473
Server Offset 76.14.161.109 -7.375 -6.909 -6.484 -5.228 -3.905 -2.605 -1.877 2.579 4.305 0.810 -5.207 ms -431.8 3366
Server Offset SHM(0) -474.453 -432.543 -417.085 -369.263 -318.266 -301.853 -261.347 98.819 130.690 30.029 -369.555 ms -2396 3.241e+04
Server Offset SHM(1) -0.887 -0.577 -0.412 0.081 0.887 1.463 4.195 1.299 2.040 0.417 0.130 µs -0.4766 10.45
TDOP 0.540 0.550 0.600 0.870 1.530 2.160 2.920 0.930 1.610 0.318 0.941 15.46 64.24
Temp ZONE0 56.382 56.920 56.920 58.534 60.686 62.300 62.838 3.766 5.380 1.203 58.542 °C
nSats 6.000 6.000 6.000 9.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 6.000 6.000 1.603 9.233 nSat 121.8 647
Summary as CSV file


Glossary:

frequency offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated frequency and the local system clock frequency (usually in parts per million, ppm)
jitter, dispersion:
The short term change in a value. NTP measures Local Time Jitter, Refclock Jitter, and Server Jitter in seconds. Local Frequency Jitter is in ppm or ppb.
kurtosis, Kurt:
The kurtosis of a random variable X is the fourth standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of kurtosis. A normal distribution has a kurtosis of three. NIST describes a kurtosis over three as "heavy tailed" and one under three as "light tailed".
ms, millisecond:
One thousandth of a second = 0.001 seconds, 1e-3 seconds
mu, mean:
The arithmetic mean: the sum of all the values divided by the number of values. The formula for mu is: "mu = (∑xi) / N". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
ns, nanosecond:
One billionth of a second, also one thousandth of a microsecond, 0.000000001 seconds and 1e-9 seconds.
percentile:
The value below which a given percentage of values fall.
ppb, parts per billion:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppb, one in one billion, 1/1,000,000,000, 0.000,000,001, 1e-9 and 0.000,000,1%
ppm, parts per million:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppm, one in one million, 1/1,000,000, 0.000,001, and 0.000,1%
‰, parts per thousand:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ‰. one in one thousand, 1/1,000, 0.001, and 0.1%
refclock:
Reference clock, a local GPS module or other local source of time.
remote clock:
Any clock reached over the network, LAN or WAN. Also called a peer or server.
time offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock's time. Also called phase offset.
σ, sigma:
Sigma denotes the standard deviation (SD) and is centered on the arithmetic mean of the data set. The SD is simply the square root of the variance of the data set. Two sigma is simply twice the standard deviation. Three sigma is three times sigma. Smaller is better.
The formula for sigma is: "σ = √[ ∑(xi-mu)^2 / N ]". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
skewness, Skew:
The skewness of a random variable X is the third standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of skewness. Wikipedia describes it best: "The qualitative interpretation of the skew is complicated and unintuitive."
A normal distribution has a skewness of zero.
upstream clock:
Any server or reference clock used as a source of time.
µs, us, microsecond:
One millionth of a second, also one thousandth of a millisecond, 0.000,001 seconds, and 1e-6 seconds.



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