NTPsec

B-ntpsec-1-hour-stats

Report generated: Thu Jul 18 03:02:12 2019 UTC
Start Time: Thu Jul 18 02:01:43 2019 UTC
End Time: Thu Jul 18 03:02:11 2019 UTC
Report published: Wed Jul 17 20:02:18 2019 PDT
Report Period: 0.0 days

Local Clock Time/Frequency Offsets

local offset plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Time Offset -642.000 -617.000 -460.000 -165.000 123.000 278.000 446.000 583.000 895.000 182.337 -171.611 ns -13.04 39.32
Local Clock Frequency Offset -5.861 -5.861 -5.860 -5.857 -5.852 -5.852 -5.851 0.0079 0.0092 0.0025 -5.856 ppm -1.255e+10 2.915e+13

The time and frequency offsets between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the time offset (blue, in μs, scale on left). Quick changes in time offset will lead to larger frequency offsets.

These are fields 3 (time) and 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Time Jitter

local jitter plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Time Jitter 118.000 126.000 155.000 212.000 279.000 297.000 317.000 124.000 171.000 38.460 211.872 ns 105.3 539.5

The RMS Jitter of the local clock offset. In other words, how fast the local clock offset is changing.

Lower is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0μs.

RMS jitter is field 5 in the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Frequency Jitter

local stability plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 37.000 39.000 41.000 56.000 87.000 103.000 106.000 46.000 64.000 13.615 58.367 10e-12 46.44 199.8

The RMS Frequency Jitter (aka wander) of the local clock's frequency. In other words, how fast the local clock changes frequency.

Lower is better. An ideal clock would be a horizontal line at 0ppm.

RMS Frequency Jitter is field 6 in the loopstats log file.



Local Clock Time Offset Histogram

local offset histogram plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Offset -642.000 -617.000 -460.000 -165.000 123.000 278.000 446.000 583.000 895.000 182.337 -171.611 ns -13.04 39.32

The clock offsets of the local clock as a histogram.

The Local Clock Offset is field 3 from the loopstats log file.



Local Temperatures

local temps plot

Local temperatures. These will be site-specific depending upon what temperature sensors you collect data from. Temperature changes affect the local clock crystal frequency and stability. The math of how temperature changes frequency is complex, and also depends on crystal aging. So there is no easy way to correct for it in software. This is the single most important component of frequency drift.

The Local Temperatures are from field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local Frequency/Temp

local freq temps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -5.861 -5.861 -5.860 -5.857 -5.852 -5.852 -5.851 0.0079 0.0092 0.0025 -5.856 ppm -1.255e+10 2.915e+13
Temp ZONE0 59.072 59.072 59.072 59.072 60.148 60.148 60.148 1.076 1.076 0.411 59.341 °C

The frequency offsets and temperatures. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the temperatures.

These are field 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file, and field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local GPS

local gps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
nSats 8.000 8.000 8.000 9.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 4.000 4.000 1.080 9.633 nSat 521.7 4339
TDOP 0.610 0.610 0.610 1.030 1.480 1.500 1.500 0.870 0.890 0.247 1.008 38.53 149.6

Local GPS. The Time Dilution of Precision (TDOP) is plotted in blue. The number of visible satellites (nSat) is plotted in red.

TDOP is field 3, and nSats is field 4, from the gpsd log file. The gpsd log file is created by the ntploggps program.

TDOP is a dimensionless error factor. TDOP ranges from 1 to greater than 20. 1 denotes the highest possible confidence level. 2 to 5 is good. Greater than 20 means there will be significant inaccuracy and error.



Server Offsets

peer offsets plot

The offset of all refclocks and servers. This can be useful to see if offset changes are happening in a single clock or all clocks together.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 162.213.2.253

peer offset 162.213.2.253 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 162.213.2.253 -1.671 -1.671 -1.671 -1.397 -1.085 -1.085 -1.085 0.586 0.586 0.203 -1.390 ms -506.9 4163

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 169.229.128.134

peer offset 169.229.128.134 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 169.229.128.134 -2.244 -2.244 -2.244 -1.763 -1.499 -1.499 -1.499 0.745 0.745 0.196 -1.839 ms -1144 1.219e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.10

peer offset 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 3.325 3.325 4.371 26.195 73.451 97.409 97.409 69.080 94.084 20.703 30.373 µs 3.091 9.834

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.12

peer offset 192.168.1.12 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.12 55.237 55.237 76.906 127.526 182.512 232.217 232.217 105.606 176.980 33.942 130.617 µs 31.91 121

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 216.218.192.202

peer offset 216.218.192.202 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 216.218.192.202 -2.370 -2.370 -2.370 -1.850 -1.499 -1.499 -1.499 0.871 0.871 0.257 -1.897 ms -612.5 5351

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 76.14.161.109

peer offset 76.14.161.109 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 76.14.161.109 -6.339 -6.339 -6.339 -5.344 -3.077 -3.077 -3.077 3.262 3.262 0.821 -5.349 ms -445.5 3489

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(0)

peer offset SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(0) -436.184 -421.929 -412.839 -371.989 -341.484 -329.760 -308.182 71.355 92.169 21.914 -374.706 ms -5983 1.093e+05

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(1)

peer offset SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(1) -643.000 -618.000 -461.000 -166.000 124.000 279.000 447.000 585.000 897.000 182.774 -172.310 ns -13.05 39.35

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitters

peer jitters plot

The RMS Jitter of all refclocks and servers. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 162.213.2.253

peer jitter 162.213.2.253 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 162.213.2.253 0.526 0.526 0.526 1.326 2.257 2.257 2.257 1.730 1.730 0.682 1.276 ms 3.559 7.471

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 169.229.128.134

peer jitter 169.229.128.134 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 169.229.128.134 0.464 0.464 0.464 1.457 7.465 7.465 7.465 7.001 7.001 2.386 2.254 ms 1.436 3.518

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.10

peer jitter 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.033 0.033 0.037 0.317 8.636 8.638 8.638 8.599 8.604 2.700 1.698 ms 0.6164 2.863

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.12

peer jitter 192.168.1.12 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.12 0.041 0.041 0.049 0.618 19.894 21.127 21.127 19.845 21.087 5.244 2.854 ms 1.185 5.588

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 216.218.192.202

peer jitter 216.218.192.202 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 216.218.192.202 0.384 0.384 0.384 2.028 4.392 4.392 4.392 4.008 4.008 1.242 2.017 ms 2.931 7.094

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 76.14.161.109

peer jitter 76.14.161.109 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 76.14.161.109 1.271 1.271 1.271 12.336 43.816 43.816 43.816 42.545 42.545 11.390 11.993 ms 1.787 5.678

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(0)

peer jitter SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(0) 1.698 4.462 6.438 11.960 22.842 29.637 40.644 16.404 25.174 5.200 13.017 ms 9.076 30.83

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(1)

peer jitter SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(1) 61.000 81.000 107.000 192.000 336.000 403.000 487.000 229.000 322.000 73.579 204.279 ns 11.88 39.71

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Summary


Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -5.861 -5.861 -5.860 -5.857 -5.852 -5.852 -5.851 0.0079 0.0092 0.0025 -5.856 ppm -1.255e+10 2.915e+13
Local Clock Time Offset -642.000 -617.000 -460.000 -165.000 123.000 278.000 446.000 583.000 895.000 182.337 -171.611 ns -13.04 39.32
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 37.000 39.000 41.000 56.000 87.000 103.000 106.000 46.000 64.000 13.615 58.367 10e-12 46.44 199.8
Local RMS Time Jitter 118.000 126.000 155.000 212.000 279.000 297.000 317.000 124.000 171.000 38.460 211.872 ns 105.3 539.5
Server Jitter 162.213.2.253 0.526 0.526 0.526 1.326 2.257 2.257 2.257 1.730 1.730 0.682 1.276 ms 3.559 7.471
Server Jitter 169.229.128.134 0.464 0.464 0.464 1.457 7.465 7.465 7.465 7.001 7.001 2.386 2.254 ms 1.436 3.518
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.033 0.033 0.037 0.317 8.636 8.638 8.638 8.599 8.604 2.700 1.698 ms 0.6164 2.863
Server Jitter 192.168.1.12 0.041 0.041 0.049 0.618 19.894 21.127 21.127 19.845 21.087 5.244 2.854 ms 1.185 5.588
Server Jitter 216.218.192.202 0.384 0.384 0.384 2.028 4.392 4.392 4.392 4.008 4.008 1.242 2.017 ms 2.931 7.094
Server Jitter 76.14.161.109 1.271 1.271 1.271 12.336 43.816 43.816 43.816 42.545 42.545 11.390 11.993 ms 1.787 5.678
Server Jitter SHM(0) 1.698 4.462 6.438 11.960 22.842 29.637 40.644 16.404 25.174 5.200 13.017 ms 9.076 30.83
Server Jitter SHM(1) 61.000 81.000 107.000 192.000 336.000 403.000 487.000 229.000 322.000 73.579 204.279 ns 11.88 39.71
Server Offset 162.213.2.253 -1.671 -1.671 -1.671 -1.397 -1.085 -1.085 -1.085 0.586 0.586 0.203 -1.390 ms -506.9 4163
Server Offset 169.229.128.134 -2.244 -2.244 -2.244 -1.763 -1.499 -1.499 -1.499 0.745 0.745 0.196 -1.839 ms -1144 1.219e+04
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 3.325 3.325 4.371 26.195 73.451 97.409 97.409 69.080 94.084 20.703 30.373 µs 3.091 9.834
Server Offset 192.168.1.12 55.237 55.237 76.906 127.526 182.512 232.217 232.217 105.606 176.980 33.942 130.617 µs 31.91 121
Server Offset 216.218.192.202 -2.370 -2.370 -2.370 -1.850 -1.499 -1.499 -1.499 0.871 0.871 0.257 -1.897 ms -612.5 5351
Server Offset 76.14.161.109 -6.339 -6.339 -6.339 -5.344 -3.077 -3.077 -3.077 3.262 3.262 0.821 -5.349 ms -445.5 3489
Server Offset SHM(0) -436.184 -421.929 -412.839 -371.989 -341.484 -329.760 -308.182 71.355 92.169 21.914 -374.706 ms -5983 1.093e+05
Server Offset SHM(1) -643.000 -618.000 -461.000 -166.000 124.000 279.000 447.000 585.000 897.000 182.774 -172.310 ns -13.05 39.35
TDOP 0.610 0.610 0.610 1.030 1.480 1.500 1.500 0.870 0.890 0.247 1.008 38.53 149.6
Temp ZONE0 59.072 59.072 59.072 59.072 60.148 60.148 60.148 1.076 1.076 0.411 59.341 °C
nSats 8.000 8.000 8.000 9.000 12.000 12.000 12.000 4.000 4.000 1.080 9.633 nSat 521.7 4339
Summary as CSV file


Glossary:

frequency offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated frequency and the local system clock frequency (usually in parts per million, ppm)
jitter, dispersion:
The short term change in a value. NTP measures Local Time Jitter, Refclock Jitter, and Server Jitter in seconds. Local Frequency Jitter is in ppm or ppb.
kurtosis, Kurt:
The kurtosis of a random variable X is the fourth standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of kurtosis. A normal distribution has a kurtosis of three. NIST describes a kurtosis over three as "heavy tailed" and one under three as "light tailed".
ms, millisecond:
One thousandth of a second = 0.001 seconds, 1e-3 seconds
mu, mean:
The arithmetic mean: the sum of all the values divided by the number of values. The formula for mu is: "mu = (∑xi) / N". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
ns, nanosecond:
One billionth of a second, also one thousandth of a microsecond, 0.000000001 seconds and 1e-9 seconds.
percentile:
The value below which a given percentage of values fall.
ppb, parts per billion:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppb, one in one billion, 1/1,000,000,000, 0.000,000,001, 1e-9 and 0.000,000,1%
ppm, parts per million:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppm, one in one million, 1/1,000,000, 0.000,001, and 0.000,1%
‰, parts per thousand:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ‰. one in one thousand, 1/1,000, 0.001, and 0.1%
refclock:
Reference clock, a local GPS module or other local source of time.
remote clock:
Any clock reached over the network, LAN or WAN. Also called a peer or server.
time offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock's time. Also called phase offset.
σ, sigma:
Sigma denotes the standard deviation (SD) and is centered on the arithmetic mean of the data set. The SD is simply the square root of the variance of the data set. Two sigma is simply twice the standard deviation. Three sigma is three times sigma. Smaller is better.
The formula for sigma is: "σ = √[ ∑(xi-mu)^2 / N ]". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
skewness, Skew:
The skewness of a random variable X is the third standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of skewness. Wikipedia describes it best: "The qualitative interpretation of the skew is complicated and unintuitive."
A normal distribution has a skewness of zero.
upstream clock:
Any server or reference clock used as a source of time.
µs, us, microsecond:
One millionth of a second, also one thousandth of a millisecond, 0.000,001 seconds, and 1e-6 seconds.



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