NTPsec

B-ntpsec-12-hour-stats

Report generated: Thu Jul 18 02:05:20 2019 UTC
Start Time: Wed Jul 17 14:05:14 2019 UTC
End Time: Thu Jul 18 02:05:14 2019 UTC
Report published: Wed Jul 17 19:05:44 2019 PDT
Report Period: 0.5 days

Local Clock Time/Frequency Offsets

local offset plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Time Offset -886.000 -619.000 -473.000 -78.000 302.000 441.000 713.000 775.000 1,060.000 233.860 -81.568 ns -6.548 17.32
Local Clock Frequency Offset -5.851 -5.850 -5.842 -5.794 -5.783 -5.782 -5.782 0.059 0.068 0.0186 -5.801 ppm -3.063e+07 9.584e+09

The time and frequency offsets between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the time offset (blue, in μs, scale on left). Quick changes in time offset will lead to larger frequency offsets.

These are fields 3 (time) and 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Time Jitter

local jitter plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Time Jitter 109.000 119.000 140.000 201.000 283.000 327.000 375.000 143.000 208.000 43.966 204.477 ns 60.16 269.1

The RMS Jitter of the local clock offset. In other words, how fast the local clock offset is changing.

Lower is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0μs.

RMS jitter is field 5 in the loopstats log file.



Local RMS Frequency Jitter

local stability plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 25.000 30.000 34.000 54.000 97.000 116.000 139.000 63.000 86.000 19.572 57.641 10e-12 14.26 49.21

The RMS Frequency Jitter (aka wander) of the local clock's frequency. In other words, how fast the local clock changes frequency.

Lower is better. An ideal clock would be a horizontal line at 0ppm.

RMS Frequency Jitter is field 6 in the loopstats log file.



Local Clock Time Offset Histogram

local offset histogram plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Offset -886.000 -619.000 -473.000 -78.000 302.000 441.000 713.000 775.000 1,060.000 233.860 -81.568 ns -6.548 17.32

The clock offsets of the local clock as a histogram.

The Local Clock Offset is field 3 from the loopstats log file.



Local Temperatures

local temps plot

Local temperatures. These will be site-specific depending upon what temperature sensors you collect data from. Temperature changes affect the local clock crystal frequency and stability. The math of how temperature changes frequency is complex, and also depends on crystal aging. So there is no easy way to correct for it in software. This is the single most important component of frequency drift.

The Local Temperatures are from field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local Frequency/Temp

local freq temps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -5.851 -5.850 -5.842 -5.794 -5.783 -5.782 -5.782 0.059 0.068 0.0186 -5.801 ppm -3.063e+07 9.584e+09
Temp ZONE0 56.382 56.382 56.920 57.996 59.072 59.610 60.148 2.152 3.228 0.790 57.798 °C

The frequency offsets and temperatures. Showing frequency offset (red, in parts per million, scale on right) and the temperatures.

These are field 4 (frequency) from the loopstats log file, and field 3 from the tempstats log file.



Local GPS

local gps plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
nSats 6.000 6.000 6.000 9.000 11.000 12.000 12.000 5.000 6.000 1.527 8.453 nSat 107 549.7
TDOP 0.580 0.590 0.610 0.920 1.720 2.560 2.920 1.110 1.970 0.374 1.008 11.93 47.39

Local GPS. The Time Dilution of Precision (TDOP) is plotted in blue. The number of visible satellites (nSat) is plotted in red.

TDOP is field 3, and nSats is field 4, from the gpsd log file. The gpsd log file is created by the ntploggps program.

TDOP is a dimensionless error factor. TDOP ranges from 1 to greater than 20. 1 denotes the highest possible confidence level. 2 to 5 is good. Greater than 20 means there will be significant inaccuracy and error.



Server Offsets

peer offsets plot

The offset of all refclocks and servers. This can be useful to see if offset changes are happening in a single clock or all clocks together.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 162.213.2.253

peer offset 162.213.2.253 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 162.213.2.253 -2.206 -2.206 -2.104 -1.636 -1.131 -0.776 -0.776 0.973 1.430 0.302 -1.619 ms -277.4 1888

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 169.229.128.134

peer offset 169.229.128.134 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 169.229.128.134 -2.604 -2.504 -2.395 -1.963 -1.524 -1.347 -1.322 0.871 1.157 0.269 -1.981 ms -608.7 5297

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.10

peer offset 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -47.725 -19.046 1.845 29.730 77.304 140.324 193.393 75.459 159.370 27.158 34.254 µs 2.631 11.65

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 192.168.1.12

peer offset 192.168.1.12 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 192.168.1.12 -57.118 -13.754 59.695 132.231 192.933 245.011 377.729 133.238 258.765 45.044 128.399 µs 11.69 37

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 216.218.192.202

peer offset 216.218.192.202 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 216.218.192.202 -2.757 -2.644 -2.417 -1.920 -1.447 -1.329 -1.284 0.970 1.316 0.293 -1.935 ms -461.8 3689

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset 76.14.161.109

peer offset 76.14.161.109 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset 76.14.161.109 -7.375 -6.909 -6.280 -5.364 -3.488 -3.043 -1.877 2.793 3.866 0.834 -5.210 ms -401.3 3052

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(0)

peer offset SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(0) -432.860 -411.645 -396.878 -355.136 -310.343 -296.648 -261.347 86.535 114.997 26.449 -354.351 ms -3028 4.421e+04

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Offset SHM(1)

peer offset SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Offset SHM(1) -887.000 -620.000 -474.000 -79.000 303.000 442.000 714.000 777.000 1,062.000 234.585 -81.817 ns -6.544 17.29

The offset of a server in seconds. This is useful to see how the measured offset is behaving.

The chart also plots offset±rtt, where rtt is the round trip time to the server. NTP can not really know the offset of a remote chimer, NTP computes it by subtracting rtt/2 from the offset. Plotting the offset±rtt reverses this calculation to more easily see the effects of rtt changes.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s. Typical 90% ranges may be: local LAN server 80µs; 90% ranges for WAN server may be 4ms and much larger.

Clock Offset is field 5 in the peerstats log file. The Round Trip Time (rtt) is field 6 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitters

peer jitters plot

The RMS Jitter of all refclocks and servers. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 162.213.2.253

peer jitter 162.213.2.253 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 162.213.2.253 0.461 0.461 0.697 1.661 5.777 20.745 20.745 5.080 20.284 3.529 2.748 ms 3.306 16.69

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 169.229.128.134

peer jitter 169.229.128.134 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 169.229.128.134 0.292 0.309 0.424 1.448 6.746 16.489 16.586 6.322 16.180 2.459 2.283 ms 2.939 15.68

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.10

peer jitter 192.168.1.10 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.015 0.026 0.056 0.504 4.498 8.959 56.753 4.442 8.934 3.008 1.192 ms 10.25 181.9

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 192.168.1.12

peer jitter 192.168.1.12 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 192.168.1.12 0.028 0.036 0.057 0.576 7.880 56.998 80.399 7.823 56.962 11.442 3.340 ms 2.528 16.61

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 216.218.192.202

peer jitter 216.218.192.202 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 216.218.192.202 0.419 0.433 0.591 1.608 8.805 56.647 56.652 8.214 56.214 7.049 3.396 ms 4.794 36.47

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter 76.14.161.109

peer jitter 76.14.161.109 plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter 76.14.161.109 0.633 0.875 1.469 4.103 30.598 49.578 49.856 29.128 48.704 10.974 9.382 ms 1.338 4.64

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(0)

peer jitter SHM(0) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(0) 2.246 4.504 6.144 11.499 22.534 29.302 58.415 16.390 24.798 5.201 12.553 ms 8.387 29.38

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Server Jitter SHM(1)

peer jitter SHM(1) plot

Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Server Jitter SHM(1) 36.000 78.000 105.000 194.000 386.000 471.000 648.000 281.000 393.000 86.126 211.871 ns 8.631 28.6

The RMS Jitter of a server. Jitter is the current estimated dispersion, in other words the variation in offset between samples.

Closer to 0s is better. An ideal system would be a horizontal line at 0s.

RMS Jitter is field 8 in the peerstats log file.



Summary


Percentiles...... Ranges...... Skew- Kurt-
Name Min1%5%50%95% 99%Max   90%98%StdDev  MeanUnits nessosis
Local Clock Frequency Offset -5.851 -5.850 -5.842 -5.794 -5.783 -5.782 -5.782 0.059 0.068 0.0186 -5.801 ppm -3.063e+07 9.584e+09
Local Clock Time Offset -886.000 -619.000 -473.000 -78.000 302.000 441.000 713.000 775.000 1,060.000 233.860 -81.568 ns -6.548 17.32
Local RMS Frequency Jitter 25.000 30.000 34.000 54.000 97.000 116.000 139.000 63.000 86.000 19.572 57.641 10e-12 14.26 49.21
Local RMS Time Jitter 109.000 119.000 140.000 201.000 283.000 327.000 375.000 143.000 208.000 43.966 204.477 ns 60.16 269.1
Server Jitter 162.213.2.253 0.461 0.461 0.697 1.661 5.777 20.745 20.745 5.080 20.284 3.529 2.748 ms 3.306 16.69
Server Jitter 169.229.128.134 0.292 0.309 0.424 1.448 6.746 16.489 16.586 6.322 16.180 2.459 2.283 ms 2.939 15.68
Server Jitter 192.168.1.10 0.015 0.026 0.056 0.504 4.498 8.959 56.753 4.442 8.934 3.008 1.192 ms 10.25 181.9
Server Jitter 192.168.1.12 0.028 0.036 0.057 0.576 7.880 56.998 80.399 7.823 56.962 11.442 3.340 ms 2.528 16.61
Server Jitter 216.218.192.202 0.419 0.433 0.591 1.608 8.805 56.647 56.652 8.214 56.214 7.049 3.396 ms 4.794 36.47
Server Jitter 76.14.161.109 0.633 0.875 1.469 4.103 30.598 49.578 49.856 29.128 48.704 10.974 9.382 ms 1.338 4.64
Server Jitter SHM(0) 2.246 4.504 6.144 11.499 22.534 29.302 58.415 16.390 24.798 5.201 12.553 ms 8.387 29.38
Server Jitter SHM(1) 36.000 78.000 105.000 194.000 386.000 471.000 648.000 281.000 393.000 86.126 211.871 ns 8.631 28.6
Server Offset 162.213.2.253 -2.206 -2.206 -2.104 -1.636 -1.131 -0.776 -0.776 0.973 1.430 0.302 -1.619 ms -277.4 1888
Server Offset 169.229.128.134 -2.604 -2.504 -2.395 -1.963 -1.524 -1.347 -1.322 0.871 1.157 0.269 -1.981 ms -608.7 5297
Server Offset 192.168.1.10 -47.725 -19.046 1.845 29.730 77.304 140.324 193.393 75.459 159.370 27.158 34.254 µs 2.631 11.65
Server Offset 192.168.1.12 -57.118 -13.754 59.695 132.231 192.933 245.011 377.729 133.238 258.765 45.044 128.399 µs 11.69 37
Server Offset 216.218.192.202 -2.757 -2.644 -2.417 -1.920 -1.447 -1.329 -1.284 0.970 1.316 0.293 -1.935 ms -461.8 3689
Server Offset 76.14.161.109 -7.375 -6.909 -6.280 -5.364 -3.488 -3.043 -1.877 2.793 3.866 0.834 -5.210 ms -401.3 3052
Server Offset SHM(0) -432.860 -411.645 -396.878 -355.136 -310.343 -296.648 -261.347 86.535 114.997 26.449 -354.351 ms -3028 4.421e+04
Server Offset SHM(1) -887.000 -620.000 -474.000 -79.000 303.000 442.000 714.000 777.000 1,062.000 234.585 -81.817 ns -6.544 17.29
TDOP 0.580 0.590 0.610 0.920 1.720 2.560 2.920 1.110 1.970 0.374 1.008 11.93 47.39
Temp ZONE0 56.382 56.382 56.920 57.996 59.072 59.610 60.148 2.152 3.228 0.790 57.798 °C
nSats 6.000 6.000 6.000 9.000 11.000 12.000 12.000 5.000 6.000 1.527 8.453 nSat 107 549.7
Summary as CSV file


Glossary:

frequency offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated frequency and the local system clock frequency (usually in parts per million, ppm)
jitter, dispersion:
The short term change in a value. NTP measures Local Time Jitter, Refclock Jitter, and Server Jitter in seconds. Local Frequency Jitter is in ppm or ppb.
kurtosis, Kurt:
The kurtosis of a random variable X is the fourth standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of kurtosis. A normal distribution has a kurtosis of three. NIST describes a kurtosis over three as "heavy tailed" and one under three as "light tailed".
ms, millisecond:
One thousandth of a second = 0.001 seconds, 1e-3 seconds
mu, mean:
The arithmetic mean: the sum of all the values divided by the number of values. The formula for mu is: "mu = (∑xi) / N". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
ns, nanosecond:
One billionth of a second, also one thousandth of a microsecond, 0.000000001 seconds and 1e-9 seconds.
percentile:
The value below which a given percentage of values fall.
ppb, parts per billion:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppb, one in one billion, 1/1,000,000,000, 0.000,000,001, 1e-9 and 0.000,000,1%
ppm, parts per million:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ppm, one in one million, 1/1,000,000, 0.000,001, and 0.000,1%
‰, parts per thousand:
Ratio between two values. These following are all the same: 1 ‰. one in one thousand, 1/1,000, 0.001, and 0.1%
refclock:
Reference clock, a local GPS module or other local source of time.
remote clock:
Any clock reached over the network, LAN or WAN. Also called a peer or server.
time offset:
The difference between the ntpd calculated time and the local system clock's time. Also called phase offset.
σ, sigma:
Sigma denotes the standard deviation (SD) and is centered on the arithmetic mean of the data set. The SD is simply the square root of the variance of the data set. Two sigma is simply twice the standard deviation. Three sigma is three times sigma. Smaller is better.
The formula for sigma is: "σ = √[ ∑(xi-mu)^2 / N ]". Where xi denotes the data points and N is the number of data points.
skewness, Skew:
The skewness of a random variable X is the third standardized moment and is a dimension-less ratio. ntpviz uses the Pearson's moment coefficient of skewness. Wikipedia describes it best: "The qualitative interpretation of the skew is complicated and unintuitive."
A normal distribution has a skewness of zero.
upstream clock:
Any server or reference clock used as a source of time.
µs, us, microsecond:
One millionth of a second, also one thousandth of a millisecond, 0.000,001 seconds, and 1e-6 seconds.



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